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Thursday, August 30, 2007

Leveling Off

Today on BP my column is a follow-up on The Myth of the Golden Age published back in January. Essentially, I use pitcher hitting relative to position player hitting to create a "Level Index" relative to the 2006 American League and then adjust player performances for single seasons, careers, and career rate. I purposefully did not use the same technique used by Clay Davenport and David Gassko since in part I wanted to see how well this independent measure would agree.

To give you a little preview here are the top 250 career adjusted leaders in WX1 which is a generalized version of Keith Woolner's Win Expectacny (WX) framework which I wrote about last year. You'll also note that the difference between the original WX1 and version adjusted for year and league difficulty as well as WX1 per 600 plate appearances in both cases is also included.


Name Start End PA AdjWX1 WX1 Diff WX1Rate AdjWX1Rate
Barry Bonds 1986 2006 12026 104.6 108.6 -4.0 5.4 5.2
Babe Ruth 1914 1935 10573 80.4 116.2 -35.7 6.6 4.6
Hank Aaron 1954 1976 13908 78.9 89.3 -10.3 3.9 3.4
Ted Williams 1939 1960 9752 73.7 97.3 -23.6 6.0 4.5
Willie Mays 1951 1973 12449 73.4 83.8 -10.3 4.0 3.5
Stan Musial 1941 1963 12659 69.3 86.0 -16.8 4.1 3.3
Ty Cobb 1905 1928 12978 68.4 102.1 -33.7 4.7 3.2
Mickey Mantle 1951 1968 9896 66.2 81.8 -15.6 5.0 4.0
Frank Robinson 1956 1976 11545 59.2 67.1 -7.8 3.5 3.1
Lou Gehrig 1923 1939 9615 55.9 78.1 -22.2 4.9 3.5
Rogers Hornsby 1915 1937 9427 53.6 76.8 -23.2 4.9 3.4
Rickey Henderson 1979 2003 13248 52.1 55.7 -3.6 2.5 2.4
Mel Ott 1926 1947 11273 51.9 70.2 -18.3 3.7 2.8
Frank Thomas 1990 2006 9084 51.8 53.7 -1.9 3.5 3.4
Jeff Bagwell 1991 2005 9303 50.8 52.9 -2.1 3.4 3.3
Tris Speaker 1907 1928 11885 49.4 73.9 -24.5 3.7 2.5
Joe Morgan 1963 1984 11289 47.8 54.1 -6.3 2.9 2.5
Gary Sheffield 1988 2006 9441 47.1 48.9 -1.8 3.1 3.0
Mike Schmidt 1972 1989 9983 45.0 50.4 -5.4 3.0 2.7
Mark McGwire 1986 2001 7585 44.7 46.3 -1.6 3.7 3.5
Eddie Mathews 1952 1968 10075 44.2 51.8 -7.5 3.1 2.6
Willie McCovey 1959 1980 9617 42.9 48.0 -5.0 3.0 2.7
Eddie Collins 1906 1930 11960 42.0 62.4 -20.4 3.1 2.1
Honus Wagner 1897 1917 11614 41.4 61.3 -19.9 3.2 2.1
Jimmie Foxx 1925 1945 9657 41.3 57.2 -15.8 3.6 2.6
Dick Allen 1963 1977 7298 40.5 45.1 -4.5 3.7 3.3
Manny Ramirez 1993 2006 7705 39.0 39.8 -0.9 3.1 3.0
Chipper Jones 1993 2006 7528 38.9 39.9 -1.0 3.2 3.1
Harmon Killebrew 1954 1975 9783 38.6 45.4 -6.8 2.8 2.4
Mike Piazza 1992 2006 7386 38.1 39.6 -1.5 3.2 3.1
Tony Gwynn 1982 2001 10208 38.0 40.0 -2.0 2.4 2.2
Willie Stargell 1962 1982 8948 38.0 42.6 -4.6 2.9 2.5
Edgar Martinez 1987 2004 8583 37.6 38.8 -1.3 2.7 2.6
Al Kaline 1953 1974 11542 37.3 44.9 -7.7 2.3 1.9
Carl Yastrzemski 1961 1983 13951 37.2 42.8 -5.6 1.8 1.6
Johnny Mize 1936 1953 7319 35.4 46.5 -11.0 3.8 2.9
Tim Raines 1980 2002 10317 35.0 37.6 -2.5 2.2 2.0
Jim Thome 1991 2006 7835 34.8 35.9 -1.0 2.7 2.7
Ken Griffey 1989 2006 9468 34.4 35.6 -1.2 2.3 2.2
Joe DiMaggio 1936 1951 7625 34.1 45.4 -11.3 3.6 2.7
Reggie Jackson 1967 1987 11320 34.1 40.1 -6.0 2.1 1.8
Fred McGriff 1986 2004 10135 33.6 35.0 -1.4 2.1 2.0
Albert Pujols 2001 2006 4014 32.9 33.7 -0.8 5.0 4.9
Alex Rodriguez 1994 2006 7668 32.6 33.3 -0.7 2.6 2.6
Eddie Murray 1977 1997 12799 32.4 35.9 -3.4 1.7 1.5
Billy Williams 1959 1976 10476 32.3 35.8 -3.5 2.1 1.8
Dave Winfield 1973 1995 12333 32.2 35.8 -3.6 1.7 1.6
Jason Giambi 1995 2006 6781 31.6 32.1 -0.5 2.8 2.8
George Brett 1973 1993 11591 31.5 35.5 -4.0 1.8 1.6
Brian Giles 1995 2006 6333 31.0 31.8 -0.8 3.0 2.9
Rafael Palmeiro 1986 2005 11959 30.8 31.8 -1.1 1.6 1.5
Duke Snider 1947 1964 8216 30.4 37.1 -6.7 2.7 2.2
Jack Clark 1975 1992 8201 30.3 32.9 -2.7 2.4 2.2
Paul Waner 1926 1945 10724 30.2 41.6 -11.4 2.3 1.7
Bobby Abreu 1996 2006 6342 30.1 30.8 -0.8 2.9 2.8
Harry Heilmann 1914 1932 8920 30.0 44.3 -14.4 3.0 2.0
Will Clark 1986 2000 8224 29.7 30.9 -1.3 2.3 2.2
Roberto Clemente 1955 1972 10177 29.6 33.8 -4.2 2.0 1.7
Ralph Kiner 1946 1955 6232 29.4 36.2 -6.8 3.5 2.8
Wade Boggs 1982 1999 10717 29.0 30.9 -1.9 1.7 1.6
Larry Walker 1989 2005 7892 28.5 29.6 -1.2 2.3 2.2
Frank Howard 1958 1973 7320 28.4 32.0 -3.6 2.6 2.3
Rod Carew 1967 1985 10525 28.0 32.5 -4.4 1.9 1.6
Reggie Smith 1966 1982 8017 27.9 32.1 -4.2 2.4 2.1
Norm Cash 1958 1974 7820 27.3 31.7 -4.4 2.4 2.1
Sammy Sosa 1989 2005 9386 27.2 28.4 -1.2 1.8 1.7
Joe Jackson 1908 1920 5631 26.6 40.0 -13.4 4.3 2.8
Hank Greenberg 1930 1947 6080 26.5 35.2 -8.7 3.5 2.6
Pete Rose 1963 1986 15754 26.5 31.2 -4.8 1.2 1.0
Vladimir Guerrero 1996 2006 5503 25.7 26.4 -0.6 2.9 2.8
Orlando Cepeda 1958 1974 8593 25.6 28.8 -3.1 2.0 1.8
Sam Crawford 1899 1917 10571 25.5 41.1 -15.5 2.3 1.5
Keith Hernandez 1974 1990 8521 25.2 28.2 -3.0 2.0 1.8
Jim Edmonds 1993 2006 6850 25.2 26.0 -0.9 2.3 2.2
Paul Molitor 1978 1998 12113 25.0 27.0 -1.9 1.3 1.2
Moises Alou 1990 2006 7455 25.0 25.8 -0.8 2.1 2.0
Arky Vaughan 1932 1948 7675 24.5 32.7 -8.2 2.6 1.9
Lance Berkman 1999 2006 4414 24.4 25.0 -0.6 3.4 3.3
John Olerud 1989 2005 8975 24.3 25.2 -0.8 1.7 1.6
Jeff Kent 1992 2006 8388 24.1 24.8 -0.6 1.8 1.7
Todd Helton 1997 2006 6027 24.1 24.7 -0.6 2.5 2.4
Nap Lajoie 1896 1916 10326 24.0 42.2 -18.2 2.5 1.4
Albert Belle 1989 2000 6618 24.0 25.0 -1.1 2.3 2.2
Jimmy Wynn 1963 1977 7983 23.8 27.2 -3.4 2.0 1.8
Carlos Delgado 1993 2006 7103 23.7 24.2 -0.5 2.0 2.0
Darryl Strawberry 1983 1999 6288 23.5 25.0 -1.5 2.4 2.2
Pedro Guerrero 1978 1992 6083 23.1 25.2 -2.1 2.5 2.3
Boog Powell 1961 1977 7781 23.1 26.8 -3.7 2.1 1.8
Rusty Staub 1963 1985 11150 23.1 26.5 -3.4 1.4 1.2
Ken Singleton 1970 1984 8541 23.0 26.9 -3.9 1.9 1.6
Bobby Bonds 1968 1981 8037 23.0 26.3 -3.4 2.0 1.7
Sherry Magee 1904 1919 8437 22.9 33.1 -10.1 2.4 1.6
Joe Torre 1960 1977 8716 22.9 25.3 -2.5 1.7 1.6
Bob Johnson 1933 1945 8023 22.7 30.1 -7.4 2.2 1.7
Ron Santo 1960 1974 9358 22.6 25.6 -3.0 1.6 1.5
Rocky Colavito 1955 1968 7530 22.3 27.0 -4.8 2.2 1.8
Ryan Klesko 1992 2006 6077 21.9 22.7 -0.7 2.2 2.2
Bill Terry 1923 1936 7102 21.5 29.3 -7.8 2.5 1.8
Johnny Bench 1967 1983 8650 21.4 24.5 -3.0 1.7 1.5
Dwight Evans 1972 1991 10516 21.3 23.3 -2.0 1.3 1.2
Barry Larkin 1986 2004 9002 21.3 22.6 -1.3 1.5 1.4
Cesar Cedeno 1970 1986 8077 21.3 24.8 -3.5 1.8 1.6
Babe Herman 1926 1945 6215 20.9 28.6 -7.7 2.8 2.0
Jackie Robinson 1947 1956 5730 20.6 25.1 -4.6 2.6 2.2
Tony Perez 1964 1986 10818 20.5 23.5 -3.1 1.3 1.1
Charlie Keller 1939 1952 4594 20.4 26.9 -6.5 3.5 2.7
Joe Medwick 1932 1948 8116 20.3 27.8 -7.6 2.1 1.5
Mark Grace 1988 2003 9256 20.0 21.0 -1.0 1.4 1.3
Zack Wheat 1909 1927 9919 19.9 29.1 -9.2 1.8 1.2
Jose Canseco 1985 2001 8045 19.9 20.7 -0.8 1.5 1.5
Eric Davis 1984 2001 6114 19.8 20.9 -1.0 2.0 1.9
Enos Slaughter 1938 1959 9047 19.7 25.5 -5.8 1.7 1.3
Scott Rolen 1996 2006 5849 19.6 20.3 -0.6 2.1 2.0
Jose Cruz 1970 1988 8924 19.3 22.1 -2.8 1.5 1.3
Hack Wilson 1923 1934 5536 19.1 26.8 -7.7 2.9 2.1
Darrell Evans 1969 1989 10702 19.0 21.7 -2.7 1.2 1.1
Luis Gonzalez 1990 2006 9511 18.8 19.5 -0.6 1.2 1.2
Bob Elliott 1939 1953 8174 18.7 24.0 -5.3 1.8 1.4
Kevin Mitchell 1984 1998 4669 18.7 19.7 -1.1 2.5 2.4
Chuck Klein 1928 1944 7156 18.6 27.7 -9.0 2.3 1.6
Ernie Banks 1953 1971 10325 18.4 22.6 -4.2 1.3 1.1
Bernie Williams 1991 2006 9014 18.4 19.0 -0.6 1.3 1.2
Greg Luzinski 1970 1984 7430 18.4 21.1 -2.7 1.7 1.5
Craig Biggio 1988 2006 11666 18.4 19.5 -1.2 1.0 0.9
Andre Dawson 1976 1996 10658 18.4 20.7 -2.3 1.2 1.0
Bobby Bonilla 1986 2001 8227 18.3 19.5 -1.2 1.4 1.3
Roberto Alomar 1988 2004 10350 18.1 18.8 -0.7 1.1 1.1
Larry Doby 1947 1959 6264 18.0 25.0 -7.0 2.4 1.7
Rico Carty 1963 1979 6305 17.8 20.4 -2.6 1.9 1.7
George Foster 1969 1986 7760 17.6 20.9 -3.3 1.6 1.4
Bob Watson 1966 1984 6914 17.4 20.2 -2.8 1.8 1.5
Dolph Camilli 1933 1945 6324 17.3 24.1 -6.8 2.3 1.6
Elmer Flick 1898 1910 6315 17.3 27.8 -10.5 2.6 1.6
Tony Oliva 1962 1976 6820 17.3 20.1 -2.9 1.8 1.5
Stan Hack 1932 1947 8485 17.2 23.1 -5.9 1.6 1.2
Jim Rice 1974 1989 8994 17.1 19.5 -2.4 1.3 1.1
Juan Gonzalez 1989 2005 7093 17.1 17.8 -0.7 1.5 1.4
John Kruk 1986 1995 4601 17.1 17.9 -0.8 2.3 2.2
Yogi Berra 1946 1965 8312 17.1 22.8 -5.7 1.6 1.2
Bobby Murcer 1965 1983 7691 17.1 20.0 -2.9 1.6 1.3
Wally Berger 1930 1940 5625 17.0 23.0 -6.0 2.4 1.8
David Justice 1989 2002 6583 16.9 17.7 -0.8 1.6 1.5
Dale Murphy 1976 1993 9012 16.9 19.3 -2.3 1.3 1.1
Joe Adcock 1950 1966 7287 16.8 20.3 -3.5 1.7 1.4
Sid Gordon 1941 1955 5789 16.8 21.1 -4.3 2.2 1.7
Fred Lynn 1974 1990 7893 16.7 19.3 -2.6 1.5 1.3
Minnie Minoso 1949 1980 7518 16.5 22.5 -6.0 1.8 1.3
Goose Goslin 1921 1938 9767 16.5 24.8 -8.2 1.5 1.0
Ellis Burks 1987 2004 8116 16.4 17.1 -0.7 1.3 1.2
Ray Lankford 1990 2004 6638 16.3 17.2 -0.8 1.6 1.5
Jack Fournier 1912 1927 5944 16.3 24.0 -7.7 2.4 1.6
Don Mattingly 1982 1995 7700 16.3 17.5 -1.2 1.4 1.3
Gene Tenace 1969 1983 5434 16.2 18.9 -2.7 2.1 1.8
Gavvy Cravath 1908 1920 4617 16.2 23.2 -7.0 3.0 2.1
Bill Nicholson 1936 1953 6366 16.2 21.6 -5.4 2.0 1.5
Derek Jeter 1995 2006 7596 16.1 16.4 -0.3 1.3 1.3
Gary Matthews 1972 1987 8168 16.1 18.3 -2.2 1.3 1.2
Jeff Heath 1936 1949 5550 16.1 22.3 -6.2 2.4 1.7
Kiki Cuyler 1921 1938 8013 16.1 23.7 -7.6 1.8 1.2
Ron Cey 1971 1987 8282 16.0 18.3 -2.3 1.3 1.2
Shawn Green 1993 2006 7397 15.8 16.4 -0.5 1.3 1.3
Frank Baker 1908 1922 6610 15.8 24.1 -8.3 2.2 1.4
Al Oliver 1968 1985 9696 15.7 18.3 -2.6 1.1 1.0
Danny Tartabull 1984 1997 5825 15.7 16.4 -0.7 1.7 1.6
Dave Parker 1973 1991 10128 15.5 18.0 -2.5 1.1 0.9
Andy Van Slyke 1983 1995 6451 15.5 16.5 -1.1 1.5 1.4
Gil Hodges 1943 1963 8079 15.4 20.1 -4.6 1.5 1.1
Tim Salmon 1992 2006 6972 15.4 16.1 -0.7 1.4 1.3
Ryne Sandberg 1981 1997 9248 15.4 16.9 -1.5 1.1 1.0
Al Simmons 1924 1944 9485 15.2 25.8 -10.6 1.6 1.0
J.D. Drew 1998 2006 3733 15.2 15.6 -0.4 2.5 2.4
Bill Madlock 1973 1987 7304 15.1 17.6 -2.4 1.4 1.2
Kent Hrbek 1981 1994 7111 14.9 15.9 -1.0 1.3 1.3
Bob Allison 1958 1970 5887 14.9 17.4 -2.6 1.8 1.5
Chili Davis 1981 1999 9981 14.8 16.0 -1.1 1.0 0.9
Roger Maris 1957 1968 5808 14.7 17.6 -2.9 1.8 1.5
Rick Monday 1966 1984 7138 14.5 16.9 -2.4 1.4 1.2
Ken Griffey 1973 1991 8034 14.5 16.7 -2.2 1.2 1.1
Richie Ashburn 1948 1962 9693 14.5 18.6 -4.1 1.1 0.9
Roy White 1965 1979 7706 14.5 17.4 -2.9 1.4 1.1
Charlie Gehringer 1924 1942 10187 14.5 22.4 -7.9 1.3 0.9
Nomar Garciaparra 1996 2006 5242 14.4 14.7 -0.3 1.7 1.7
Harold Baines 1980 2001 11078 14.4 15.6 -1.2 0.8 0.8
Augie Galan 1934 1949 6978 14.3 20.3 -5.9 1.7 1.2
Lenny Dykstra 1985 1996 5251 14.3 15.1 -0.9 1.7 1.6
Paul O'Neill 1985 2001 8307 14.2 14.9 -0.7 1.1 1.0
Larry Doyle 1907 1920 7329 14.0 20.5 -6.5 1.7 1.1
Brian Downing 1973 1992 9180 14.0 15.5 -1.5 1.0 0.9
Lou Brock 1961 1979 11186 13.9 16.6 -2.8 0.9 0.7
Bobby Grich 1970 1986 8134 13.8 16.3 -2.4 1.2 1.0
Gabby Hartnett 1922 1941 7262 13.5 19.0 -5.5 1.6 1.1
Tommy Henrich 1937 1950 5375 13.5 18.0 -4.6 2.0 1.5
Derrek Lee 1997 2006 4847 13.4 13.8 -0.4 1.7 1.7
Roy Sievers 1949 1965 7298 13.4 18.9 -5.6 1.6 1.1
Dixie Walker 1931 1949 7650 13.3 18.4 -5.2 1.4 1.0
Kirk Gibson 1979 1995 6595 13.2 14.3 -1.1 1.3 1.2
George Sisler 1915 1930 8965 13.2 24.7 -11.5 1.7 0.9
Earl Torgeson 1947 1961 6029 13.2 16.7 -3.5 1.7 1.3
Mo Vaughn 1991 2003 6302 13.2 13.8 -0.6 1.3 1.3
Steve Garvey 1969 1987 9437 13.1 15.6 -2.5 1.0 0.8
Edd Roush 1913 1931 7305 13.1 21.2 -8.1 1.7 1.1
Frank Chance 1898 1913 4962 13.1 20.2 -7.1 2.4 1.6
Roy Cullenbine 1938 1947 4776 13.0 18.3 -5.2 2.3 1.6
Al Rosen 1947 1956 4347 13.0 18.3 -5.2 2.5 1.8
Ted Kluszewski 1947 1961 6447 13.0 17.0 -4.0 1.6 1.2
Andruw Jones 1996 2006 6542 12.9 13.3 -0.3 1.2 1.2
Bill Dickey 1928 1946 7029 12.7 17.9 -5.1 1.5 1.1
Gene Woodling 1943 1962 6585 12.7 17.5 -4.8 1.6 1.2
David Ortiz 1997 2006 4251 12.7 12.9 -0.2 1.8 1.8
Earl Averill 1929 1941 7182 12.6 18.3 -5.6 1.5 1.1
Bobby Veach 1912 1925 7498 12.6 18.9 -6.3 1.5 1.0
Lefty O'Doul 1919 1934 3636 12.5 17.5 -5.0 2.9 2.1
Lou Whitaker 1977 1995 9947 12.5 13.7 -1.2 0.8 0.8
Ken Williams 1915 1929 5588 12.5 19.4 -6.9 2.1 1.3
Cliff Floyd 1993 2006 5359 12.4 12.9 -0.5 1.4 1.4
Brett Butler 1981 1997 9507 12.4 13.5 -1.1 0.9 0.8
Del Ennis 1946 1959 7909 12.4 16.3 -3.9 1.2 0.9
Dusty Baker 1968 1986 7991 12.3 14.7 -2.4 1.1 0.9
Richie Zisk 1971 1983 5725 12.3 14.3 -2.0 1.5 1.3
Riggs Stephenson 1921 1934 5093 12.3 17.5 -5.2 2.1 1.4
Ernie Lombardi 1931 1947 6303 12.1 16.7 -4.6 1.6 1.2
Fred Clarke 1894 1915 9666 12.1 23.1 -11.0 1.4 0.8
Ted Simmons 1968 1988 9646 12.1 15.2 -3.1 0.9 0.8
Davey Lopes 1972 1987 7309 12.0 13.9 -1.9 1.1 1.0
Jim Bottomley 1922 1937 8312 12.0 19.8 -7.8 1.4 0.9
Chick Hafey 1924 1937 5080 11.9 17.6 -5.7 2.1 1.4
Mickey Cochrane 1925 1937 6177 11.9 16.6 -4.7 1.6 1.2
Kal Daniels 1986 1992 2725 11.8 12.4 -0.6 2.7 2.6
Ron Fairly 1958 1978 8397 11.8 14.2 -2.4 1.0 0.8
Ken Boyer 1955 1969 8248 11.7 14.2 -2.5 1.0 0.8
Billy Hamilton 1890 1901 6741 11.6 19.7 -8.1 1.8 1.0
Mike Donlin 1899 1914 4262 11.6 17.3 -5.7 2.4 1.6
Earle Combs 1924 1935 6490 11.6 16.9 -5.3 1.6 1.1
Miguel Cabrera 2003 2006 2372 11.6 11.8 -0.2 3.0 2.9
Hank Sauer 1941 1959 5380 11.4 14.7 -3.2 1.6 1.3
Reggie Sanders 1991 2006 6888 11.4 12.1 -0.6 1.1 1.0
Kirby Puckett 1984 1995 7775 11.4 12.3 -0.9 0.9 0.9
Lonnie Smith 1978 1994 5860 11.3 12.6 -1.2 1.3 1.2
Howard Johnson 1982 1995 5698 11.3 12.1 -0.8 1.3 1.2
Gary Carter 1974 1992 8951 11.2 13.5 -2.3 0.9 0.7
Ross Youngs 1917 1926 5296 11.2 17.3 -6.1 2.0 1.3
Travis Hafner 2002 2006 2065 11.2 11.3 -0.1 3.3 3.2
Jim Ray Hart 1963 1974 4208 11.1 12.2 -1.0 1.7 1.6
Jason Thompson 1976 1986 5677 11.1 12.9 -1.8 1.4 1.2
Bob Horner 1978 1988 4197 11.0 12.3 -1.2 1.8 1.6
Vic Wertz 1947 1963 6994 11.0 16.1 -5.1 1.4 0.9
Jackie Jensen 1950 1961 6056 10.9 14.9 -3.9 1.5 1.1
Sal Bando 1966 1981 8213 10.8 13.8 -2.9 1.0 0.8
Ferris Fain 1947 1955 4886 10.8 14.8 -4.0 1.8 1.3
Don Mincher 1960 1972 4698 10.8 12.5 -1.7 1.6 1.4

5 comments:

Tangotiger said...

I have two comments on the use of pitchers as a baseline that I would like to reiterate from my blog

1. If you focus on BABIP, you won't see any big change until the early 80s. It's important to note the various components, and the best analogy is Juan Pierre. Pierre derives no benefit from hitting HR when he played at Coors. As the longball game was increasing, his relative value was decreasing, even though he himself did not change. It's a question of leveraging skills for your environment. Pitchers likely have a similar unleverageable skill. As the environment drastically changes, the pitchers performance remain relatively stable.

2. As noted in comment 9, the DH may have stunted the growth of pitchers. And in comment 10, foreign-born pitchers may simply be much worse hitters.

Tom

Guy said...

Dan: How do you apply the level index to get an adjusted WX1? If the index for 1926 AL is .70, do you just muliply that by a player's WX1?

Dan Agonistes said...

Guy, yes that's what I'm doing at this point. I toyed around with a couple other approaches using the standard deviation for each league and year but didn't have time to do anything further.

Colin said...

Interesting stuff, but I have a random question: How is it that Alex Rodriguez and Albert Pujols come in essentially equal in career value despite playing in the same era? For comparison's sake, A-rod's WARP1 is 113 to Albert's 75. It can't all be the positional value element of WARP, can it? Has Albert really been that much better of a hitter?

JEY said...

http://www.fishingcostaricaexperts.com/costaricaboats.html

Costa rica Fishing